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In , Madison, took a seat on the local Committee of Safety, a pro-revolution group that oversaw the local Patriot militia.

At the Virginia constitutional convention, he convinced delegates to alter the Virginia Declaration of Rights to provide for "equal entitlement," rather than mere "tolerance," in the exercise of religion.

Madison served on the Council of State from to , when he was elected to the Second Continental Congress , the governing body of the United States.

Madison worked to become an expert on financial issues, becoming a legislative workhorse and a master of parliamentary coalition building.

Though General George Washington , Congressman Alexander Hamilton , and other influential leaders also favored the amendment, it was defeated because it failed to win the ratification of all thirteen states.

As a member of the Virginia House of Delegates, Madison continued to advocate for religious freedom, and, along with Jefferson, drafted the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom.

That amendment, which guaranteed freedom of religion and disestablished the Church of England, was passed in Throughout the s, Madison advocated for reform of the Articles of Confederation.

He became increasingly worried about the disunity of the states and the weakness of the central government after the end of the Revolutionary War in He disdained a proposal by John Jay that the United States acquiesce claims to the river for twenty-five years, and his desire to fight the proposal played a major role in motivating Madison to return to Congress in Madison helped arrange the Mount Vernon Conference , which settled disputes regarding navigation rights on the Potomac River and also served as a model for future interstate conferences.

Before a quorum was reached at the Philadelphia Convention on May 25, , [46] Madison worked with other members of the Virginia delegation, especially Edmund Randolph and George Mason , to create and present the Virginia Plan.

Reflecting the centralization of power envisioned by Madison, the Virginia Plan granted the U. Senate the power to overturn any law passed by state governments.

Nonetheless, with the assent of prominent attendees such as Washington and Benjamin Franklin , the delegates went into a secret session to consider a new constitution.

Though the Virginia Plan was an outline rather than a draft of a possible constitution, and though it was extensively changed during the debate, its use at the convention has led many to call Madison the "Father of the Constitution.

Delegate William Pierce wrote that "in the management of every great question he evidently took the lead in the Convention Madison had hoped that a coalition of Southern states and populous Northern states would ensure the approval of a constitution largely similar to the one proposed in the Virginia Plan.

However, delegates from small states successfully argued for more power for state governments and presented the New Jersey Plan as an alternative.

In response, Roger Sherman proposed the Connecticut Compromise , which sought to balance the interests of small and large states.

During the convention, Madison's Council of Revision was jettisoned, each state was given equal representation in the Senate, and the state legislatures, rather than the House of Representatives, were given the power to elect members of the Senate.

Madison convinced his fellow delegates to have the Constitution ratified by ratifying conventions rather than state legislatures, which he distrusted.

He also helped ensure that the president of the United States would have the ability to veto federal laws and would be elected independently of Congress through the Electoral College.

By the end of the convention, Madison believed that the new constitution failed to give enough power to the federal government compared to the state governments, but he still viewed the document as an improvement on the Articles of Confederation.

The ultimate question before the convention, Wood notes, was not how to design a government but whether the states should remain sovereign, whether sovereignty should be transferred to the national government, or whether the constitution should settle somewhere in between.

Even many delegates who shared Madison's goal of strengthening the central government reacted strongly against the extreme change to the status quo envisioned in the Virginia Plan.

Though Madison lost most of his battles over how to amend the Virginia Plan, in the process he increasingly shifted the debate away from a position of pure state sovereignty.

Since most disagreements over what to include in the constitution were ultimately disputes over the balance of sovereignty between the states and national government, Madison's influence was critical.

Wood notes that Madison's ultimate contribution was not in designing any particular constitutional framework, but in shifting the debate toward a compromise of "shared sovereignty" between the national and state governments.

After the Philadelphia Convention ended in September , Madison convinced his fellow Congressmen to remain neutral in the ratification debate and allow each state to vote upon the Constitution.

In response, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay began publishing a series of pro-ratification newspaper articles in New York. The articles were also published in book form and became a virtual debater's handbook for the supporters of the Constitution in the ratifying conventions.

Historian Clinton Rossiter called The Federalist Papers "the most important work in political science that ever has been written, or is likely ever to be written, in the United States.

While Madison and Hamilton continued to write The Federalist Papers , Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and several smaller states voted to ratify the Constitution.

New York, the second largest state and a bastion of anti-federalism, would likely not ratify it without Virginia, and Virginia's exclusion from the new government would disqualify George Washington from being the first president.

At the start of the convention, Madison knew that most delegates had already made up their mind about how to vote, and he focused his efforts on winning the support of the relatively small number of undecided delegates.

After Virginia ratified the constitution, Madison returned to New York to resume his duties in the Congress of the Confederation.

At the request of Washington, Madison sought a seat in the U. Senate, but the state legislature instead elected two Anti-Federalist allies of Patrick Henry.

House of Representatives. Locked in a difficult race against Monroe, Madison promised to support a series of constitutional amendments to protect individual liberties.

Madison became a key adviser to President Washington, who looked to Madison as the person who best understood the constitution.

He played a significant role in establishing and staffing the three Cabinet departments, and his influence helped Thomas Jefferson become the inaugural Secretary of State.

Hamilton's plan favored Northern speculators and was disadvantageous to states such as Virginia that had already paid off most of their debt, and Madison emerged as one of the principal congressional opponents of the plan.

In return, Congress passed the Residence Act , which established the federal capital district of Washington, D.

During the 1st Congress, Madison took the lead in pressing for the passage of several constitutional amendments that would form the United States Bill of Rights.

He believed that the enumeration of specific rights would fix those rights in the public mind and encourage judges to protect them.

His amendments contained numerous restrictions on the federal government and would protect, among other things, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, and the right to peaceful assembly.

Madison's Bill of Rights faced little opposition; he had largely co-opted the Anti-Federalist goal of amending the Constitution, but had avoided proposing amendments that would alienate supporters of the Constitution.

After , the Washington administration became polarized among two main factions. One faction was led by Jefferson and Madison, broadly represented Southern interests, and sought close relations with France.

The other faction was led by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, broadly represented Northern financial interests, and favored close relations with Britain.

When Hamilton submitted his Report on Manufactures , which called for federal action to stimulate the development of a diversified economy, Madison once again challenged Hamilton's proposal on constitutional grounds.

He sought to mobilize public opinion by forming a political party based on opposition to Hamilton's policies. Because the Constitution's rules essentially precluded Jefferson from challenging Adams, [g] the party backed New York Governor George Clinton for the vice presidency, but Adams won re-election by a comfortable electoral vote margin.

With Jefferson out of office after , Madison became the de facto leader of the Democratic-Republican Party.

Madison believed that a trade war with Britain would probably succeed, and would allow Americans to assert their independence fully.

The British West Indies, Madison maintained, could not live without American foodstuffs, but Americans could easily do without British manufactures.

Washington chose to retire after serving two terms and, in advance of the presidential election , Madison helped convince Jefferson to run for the presidency.

After a diplomatic incident between France and the United States known as the XYZ Affair took place, the two countries engaged in an undeclared naval war known as the Quasi-War.

Though he was out of office, Madison remained a prominent Democratic-Republican leader in opposition to the Adams administration.

Madison rejected this view of a compact among the states, and his Virginia Resolutions instead urged states to respond to unjust federal laws through interposition , a process in which a state legislature declared a law to be unconstitutional but did not take steps to actively prevent its enforcement.

Jefferson's doctrine of nullification was widely rejected, and the incident damaged the Democratic-Republican Party as attention was shifted from the Alien and Sedition Acts to the unpopular nullification doctrine.

In , after Patrick Henry announced that he would return to politics as a member of the Federalist Party, Madison won election to the Virginia legislature.

At the same time, he and Jefferson planned for Jefferson's campaign in the presidential election. The Report of held that Congress was limited to legislating on its enumerated powers , and that punishment for sedition violated freedom of speech and freedom of the press.

Jefferson embraced the report, and it became the unofficial Democratic-Republican platform for the election. Because Jefferson and Burr tied in the electoral vote, the Federalist-controlled House of Representatives held a contingent election to choose between the two candidates.

On September 15, , Madison married Dolley Payne Todd , a year-old widow, previously wife of John Todd, a Quaker farmer who died during a yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia.

After an arranged meeting in spring , the two quickly became romantically engaged and prepared for a wedding that summer, but Dolley suffered recurring illnesses because of her exposure to yellow fever in Philadelphia.

They eventually traveled to Harewood, Virginia for their wedding. Only a few close family members attended, and Winchester Reverend Alexander Balmain pronounced them a wedded couple.

Madison never had children, but he adopted Dolley's one surviving son, John Payne Todd known as Payne , after the marriage.

Throughout his life, Madison maintained a close relationship with his father, James Madison Sr, who died in At age 50, Madison inherited the large plantation of Montpelier and other possessions, including his father's numerous slaves.

Ambrose helped manage Montpelier for both his father and older brother until his death in Despite lacking foreign policy experience, Madison was appointed as Secretary of State by Jefferson.

In the case of Marbury v. Madison , Marshall simultaneously ruled that Madison had unjustly refused to deliver federal commissions to individuals who had been appointed to federal positions by President Adams but who had not yet taken office, but that the Supreme Court did not have jurisdiction over the case.

Most importantly, Marshall's opinion established the principle of judicial review. By the time Jefferson took office, Americans had settled as far west as the Mississippi River , though vast pockets of American land remained vacant or inhabited only by Native Americans.

Jefferson believed that western expansion played an important role in furthering his vision of a republic of yeoman farmers, and he hoped to acquire the Spanish territory of Louisiana , which was located to the west of the Mississippi River.

Rather than selling merely New Orleans, Napoleon's government, having already given up on plans to establish a new French empire in the Americas, offered to sell the entire Territory of Louisiana.

Despite lacking explicit authorization from Jefferson, Monroe and ambassador Robert R. Despite the time-sensitive nature of negotiations with the French, Jefferson was concerned about the constitutionality of the Louisiana Purchase, and he privately favored introducing a constitutional amendment explicitly authorizing Congress to acquire new territories.

Madison convinced Jefferson to refrain from proposing the amendment, and the administration ultimately submitted the Louisiana Purchase without an accompanying constitutional amendment.

He believed that the circumstances did not warrant a strict interpretation of the Constitution because the expansion was in the country's best interest.

Early in his tenure, Jefferson was able to maintain cordial relations with both France and Britain, but relations with Britain deteriorated after Speculation regarding Madison's potential succession of Jefferson commenced early in Jefferson's first term.

Madison's status in the party was damaged by his association with the embargo, which was unpopular throughout the country and especially in the Northeast.

On March 4, , Madison took the oath of office and was inaugurated President of the United States. Unlike Jefferson, who enjoyed political unity and support, Madison faced political opposition from his rival and friend, James Monroe , and from Vice President George Clinton.

Additionally, the Federalist Party had resurged owing to opposition to the embargo. Madison's Cabinet was very weak.

Madison immediately faced opposition to his planned nomination of Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin as Secretary of State.

Madison chose not to fight Congress for the nomination but kept Gallatin in the Treasury Department. After bitter party contention, Madison finally replaced Smith with Monroe in April The remaining members of Madison's Cabinet were chosen for the purposes of national interest and political harmony, and were largely unremarkable or incompetent.

Congress had repealed the embargo shortly before Madison became president, but troubles with the British and French continued.

The gambit almost succeeded, but negotiations with the British collapsed in mid With sanctions and other policies having failed, Madison determined that war with Britain was the only remaining option.

Madison and his advisers initially believed the war would be a quick American victory, while the British were occupied fighting in the Napoleonic Wars.

These actions would give leverage for British concessions on the Atlantic high seas. Lacking adequate revenue to fund the war, the Madison administration was forced to rely on high-interest loans furnished by bankers based in New York City and Philadelphia.

Clinton won most of the Northeast, but Madison won the election by sweeping the South and the West and winning the key state of Pennsylvania.

After the disastrous start to the War of , Madison accepted Russia's invitation to arbitrate the war, and he sent a delegation led by Gallatin and John Quincy Adams to Europe to negotiate a peace treaty.

The death of Tecumseh in that battle marked the permanent end of armed Native American resistance in the Old Northwest. The British agreed to begin peace negotiations in the town of Ghent in early , but at the same time, they shifted soldiers to North America following Napoleon's defeat in the Battle of Paris.

Despite an American victory at the Battle of Chippawa , the invasion stalled once again. General William Winder. Madison quickly sent the Treaty of Ghent to the Senate, and the Senate ratified the treaty on February 16, This view, while inaccurate, strongly contributed to a feeling of post-war euphoria that bolstered Madison's reputation as president.

The postwar period of Madison's second term saw the transition into the " Era of Good Feelings ," as the Federalists ceased to act as an effective opposition party.

Recognizing the difficulties of financing the war and the necessity of an institution to regulate the currency, Madison proposed the re-establishment of a national bank.

He also called for increased spending on the army and the navy, a tariff designed to protect American goods from foreign competition, and a constitutional amendment authorizing the federal government to fund the construction of internal improvements such as roads and canals.

His initiatives were opposed by strict constructionists such as John Randolph, who stated that Madison's proposals "out-Hamiltons Alexander Hamilton.

In making the veto, Madison argued that the General Welfare Clause did not broadly authorize federal spending on internal improvements.

Upon becoming president, Madison said the federal government's duty was to convert Native Americans by the "participation of the improvements of which the human mind and manners are susceptible in a civilized state.

The treaty began with "James Madison, President of the United States," on the first sentence of the first paragraph.

Why not sell the air, the clouds and the great sea, as well as the earth? Like Jefferson, Madison had a paternalistic attitude toward American Indians, encouraging the men to give up hunting and become farmers.

Army to protect Native lands from intrusion by settlers, to the chagrin of his military commander Andrew Jackson , who wanted Madison to ignore Indian pleas to stop the invasion of their lands.

Privately, Madison did not believe American Indians could be civilized. Madison believed that Native Americans may have been unwilling to make "the transition from the hunter, or even the herdsman state, to the agriculture.

This prompted public outrage and exacerbated anti-Indigenous bigotry among white Americans, as seen in hostile letters sent to Madison, who remained publicly silent on the issue.

In , Jefferson was told Wilkinson was under a financial retainer with Spain. Wilkinson had also been rumored to have ties to Spain during both the Washington and Adams administrations.

Jefferson removed Wilkinson from his position of Governor of the Louisiana territory in for his ties with the Burr conspiracy. Wilkinson's military request for a court-martial was denied by Madison.

Wilkinson then asked for 14 officers to testify on his behalf in Washington, but Madison refused, in essence, clearing Wilkinson of malfeasance.

Later in the House investigated Wilkinson's public record, and charged him with a high casualty rate among soldiers. Wilkinson was cleared again. However, in , Madison launched a formal court-martial of Wilkinson, that suspended him of active duty.

The military court in December cleared Wilkinson of misconduct. Madison approved of Wilkinson's acquittal, and restored him to active duty. However, Madison retained Wilkinson in the Army, but replaced him with Henry Dearborn as its commander.

Not until , when Wilkinson was court-martialled and acquitted again, did Madison finally remove him from the Army. In the presidential election , Madison and Jefferson both favored the candidacy of Secretary of State James Monroe.

Crawford in the party's congressional nominating caucus. As the Federalist Party continued to collapse as a national party, Monroe easily defeated Federalist candidate Rufus King in the election.

When Madison left office in at age 65, he retired to Montpelier , his tobacco plantation in Orange County, Virginia , not far from Jefferson's Monticello.

As with both Washington and Jefferson, Madison left the presidency a poorer man than when elected. His plantation experienced a steady financial collapse, due to the continued price declines in tobacco and also due to his stepson's mismanagement.

In his retirement, Madison occasionally became involved in public affairs, advising Andrew Jackson and other presidents. Madison helped Jefferson establish the University of Virginia , though the university was primarily Jefferson's initiative.

He retained the position as college chancellor for ten years until his death in In , at the age of 78, Madison was chosen as a representative to the Virginia Constitutional Convention for revision of the commonwealth's constitution.

It was his last appearance as a statesman. The issue of greatest importance at this convention was apportionment. The western districts of Virginia complained that they were underrepresented because the state constitution apportioned voting districts by county.

The increased population in the Piedmont and western parts of the state were not proportionately represented by delegates in the legislature.

Western reformers also wanted to extend suffrage to all white men, in place of the prevailing property ownership requirement.

Madison tried in vain to effect a compromise. Eventually, suffrage rights were extended to renters as well as landowners, but the eastern planters refused to adopt citizen population apportionment.

They added slaves held as property to the population count, to maintain a permanent majority in both houses of the legislature, arguing that there must be a balance between population and property represented.

Madison was disappointed at the failure of Virginians to resolve the issue more equitably. In his later years, Madison became highly concerned about his historic legacy.

He resorted to modifying letters and other documents in his possession, changing days and dates, adding and deleting words and sentences, and shifting characters.

By the time he had reached his late seventies, this "straightening out" had become almost an obsession. As an example, he edited a letter written to Jefferson criticizing Lafayette —Madison not only inked out original passages, but even forged Jefferson's handwriting as well.

McCoy writes that, "During the final six years of his life, amid a sea of personal [financial] troubles that were threatening to engulf him At times mental agitation issued in physical collapse.

For the better part of a year in and he was bedridden, if not silenced Literally sick with anxiety, he began to despair of his ability to make himself understood by his fellow citizens.

Madison's health slowly deteriorated. He died of congestive heart failure at Montpelier on the morning of June 28, , at the age of His favorite niece, who sat by to keep him company, asked him, "What is the matter, Uncle James?

Left with a smaller sum than Madison had intended, Dolley suffered financial troubles until her own death in During his first stint in Congress in the s, Madison came to favor amending the Articles of Confederation to provide for a stronger central government.

Wood says that Lance Banning, as in his Sacred Fire of Liberty , is the "only present-day scholar to maintain that Madison did not change his views in the s.

Wood notes that many historians struggle to understand Madison, but Wood looks at him in the terms of Madison's own times—as a nationalist but one with a different conception of nationalism from that of the Federalists.

Although baptized as an Anglican and educated by Presbyterian clergymen, [] young Madison was an avid reader of English deist tracts.

Though most historians have found little indication of his religious leanings after he left college, [] some scholars indicate he leaned toward deism.

Regardless of his own religious beliefs, Madison believed in religious liberty, and he advocated for Virginia's disestablishment of the Anglican Church throughout the late s and s.

Madison grew up on a plantation that made use of slave labor and he viewed the institution as a necessary part of the Southern economy, though he was troubled by the instability of a society that depended on a large enslaved population.

Madison was unable to separate himself from the institution of domestic slavery. Although Madison had championed a Republican form of government, he believed that slavery had caused the South to become aristocratic.

Madison believed that slaves were human property, while he opposed slavery intellectually. Madison's political views landed somewhere between John C.

Calhoun 's separation nullification and Daniel Webster 's nationalism consolidation. Trist, and William Cabel Rives promoted Madison's moderate views on slavery into the s and s, but their campaign failed due to sectionalism, economic, and abolitionism forces.

Madison's treatment of his enslaved people was known to be moderate. In , Madison ordered an overseer to treat slaves with "all the humanity and kindness of consistent with their necessary subordination and work.

According to Paul Jennings, one of Madison's younger slaves, Madison never lost his temper or had his slaves whipped, preferring to reprimand.

Rather than free him, or return him to Virginia , Madison sold Billey in Philadelphia, under a gradual emancipation law adopted in Pennsylvania.

Billey soon earned his freedom and worked for a Philadelphia merchant. Billey, however, was drowned on a voyage to New Orleans.

By , Madison's slave population at Montpelier was slightly over During the s and s, Madison was forced to sell land and slaves, caused by debts.

In , at the time of Madison's death, Madison owned 36 taxable slaves. However, Dolley, sold many of her slaves without their consent.

The remaining slaves, after Dolley's death, were given to her son, Payne Todd, who freed them upon his death. However, Todd had debts, and likely only a few slaves were actually freed.

Madison was small in stature, had bright blue eyes, a strong demeanor, and was known to be humorous at small gatherings.

Madison suffered from serious illnesses, nervousness, and was often exhausted after periods of stress. Madison often feared for the worst and was a hypochondriac.

However, Madison was in good health, while he lived a long life, without the common maladies of his times. Madison is widely regarded as one of the most important Founding Fathers of the United States.

Historian J. Stagg writes that "in some ways—because he was on the winning side of every important issue facing the young nation from to —Madison was the most successful and possibly the most influential of all the Founding Fathers.

Polls of historians and political scientists tend to rank Madison as an above average president. Morris in said the conventional view of Madison was as an "incapable President" who "mismanaged an unnecessary war.

The historian Garry Wills wrote, "Madison's claim on our admiration does not rest on a perfect consistency, any more than it rests on his presidency.

He has other virtues. As a framer and defender of the Constitution he had no peer. The finest part of Madison's performance as president was his concern for the preserving of the Constitution.

No man could do everything for the country—not even Washington. Madison did more than most, and did some things better than any.

That was quite enough. In , historian Ralph Ketcham was critical of Madison as a wartime President during the War of Ketchum blamed Madison for the events that led up to the burning of the nation's capital by the British.

Although such inclinations are ordinarily virtues, in crisis they are calamitous. Wilkinson had been involved in the Aaron Burr conspiracy during the Jefferson Administration, was on retainer of Spain, and had a high mortality rate among soldiers.

Wilkinson had also botched a campaign during the War of Madison finally mustered Wilkinson out of the Army in Montpelier, his family's plantation, has been designated a National Historic Landmark.

In , Congress created the James Madison Memorial Fellowship Foundation as part of the bicentennial celebration of the Constitution.

Several counties and communities have been named for Madison, including Madison County, Alabama and Madison, Wisconsin. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other people named James Madison, see James Madison disambiguation. Not to be confused with James Maddison.

Dolley Todd. John Todd stepson William Todd stepson. James Madison, Sr. Nelly Madison. Further information: Confederation Period.

Main article: Philadelphia Convention. Main article: The Federalist Papers. See also: Timeline of drafting and ratification of the United States Constitution.

Further information: Presidency of George Washington. Further information: Presidency of John Adams. Further information: Presidency of Thomas Jefferson.

Main article: United States presidential election. Main article: Presidency of James Madison. Further information: War of and Origins of the War of Further information: Treaty of Fort Wayne See also: List of Presidents of the United States who owned slaves.

Main article: List of memorials to James Madison. Neither was replaced for the remainder of their respective terms, as the Constitution did not have a provision for filling a vice presidential vacancy prior to the adoption of the Twenty-Fifth Amendment in The other unratified amendment, known as the Congressional Apportionment Amendment , is technically still pending before the states.

James Madison's Montpelier. Retrieved October 21, Retrieved March 25, The Montpelier Foundation. Retrieved February 14, James Madison: A Biography.

James Madison. October 4, George Washington: American Symbol. The Federalist Papers. Penguin Putnam, Inc. National Archives and Records Administration.

October 31, Retrieved February 16, Foreign Policies of the Founding Fathers. Michigan State Univ.

Alexander Hamilton. The Essential Book of Presidential Trivia. Random House Digital, Inc. The William and Mary Quarterly.

Retrieved December 18, Liberty Fund. Retrieved May 2, University Press of Kansas. Johns Hopkins Univ. Lexington Books.

Cengage Learning. Politics and Religion in the United States. Founders Constitution. Retrieved February 19, The Writings of James Madison: — Putnam's Sons.

New York Review of Books. Wood concede que muchos historiadores luchan en entender a Madison, pero Wood lo analiza como un hombre de su tiempo—como un nacionalista- pero uno con un concepto diferente del nacionalismo de los federalistas.

Durante el mandato de Jefferson, gran parte de Europa estaba envuelta en alguna guerra empezando con Francia contra Austria. Madison intentaba continuar las metas de Jefferson, particularmente deshacer el sistema e ideas que dejaron los presidentes federalistas previos Washington y Adams.

Esta vez fue aprobado por Madison al haber experimentado la necesidad de uno. Las milicias o decidieron no pelear en la guerra o rehusaban salir de sus estados.

James Wilkinson fue un comandante militar estadounidense controvertido, apuntado para ser gobernador del territorio de Luisiana por Thomas Jefferson en El dilema de la esclavitud lo deshizo".

William R. George F. Los escritos de Madison se estudian para debates sobre derechos humanos entre diferentes clases de ciudadanos en el siglo XXI.

De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre. James Madison 4. Eso era suficiente. James Madison fue honrado en un sello de correos de Thomas 22 de mayo de Consultado el 25 de octubre de James Madison's Montpelier.

Archivado desde el original el 7 de mayo de James Madison University. Consultado el 25 de marzo de The Montpelier Foundation.

The Essential Book of Presidential Trivia. Random House Digital, Inc. Johns Hopkins U. Hutson Lexington Books. Cengage Learning.

The Idea of America. Bernstein, Are We to be a Nation? James Madison: The Founding Father. University of Missouri Press.

En Brock, R. Collections of the Virginia Historical Society. New Series. Archivado desde el original el 12 de abril de Consultado el 12 de abril de DeRosa, ed.

The Politics of Dissolution. Transaction Publishers. Consultado el 5 de enero de The Library of Congress.

Consultado el 7 de agosto de Pelican Publishing. Foreword by Laura Tesh. Footnote 54, pp. Washington D. Consultado el 4 de octubre de

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